E-government for a better society

Over the years technology had great impact in many aspects of our life.  Under the global pressure of information technology, the adoption of web-based technologies in public administration has created a new government and citizens interface.  As a result e-government has emerged rapidly around the world. Many countries use e-government as an enabling tool to increase efficiency, enhance transparency, collect more revenue and facilitate public sector reform[1]. Over the years government have been engaged in deploying information and communication technologies in order to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of their functioning. Such kind of application were focused on building management information systems for planning and monitoring, however many of these large projects have been undertaken and there have been a complete failure[2]. The record of using ICT to gain benefit has been quite disappointed over the years. But the advent of the Internet and its uses such as distance learning and particularly delivery information and services to citizens has once again revived the hope that information and communication technologies can deliver value with investment. This paper will examine where e-government is again a failure of ICT’s and therefore just a technical advance or whether it can deliver the value of investment and go beyond technical advance to a social advance.

The rise of the information society has brought major changes in citizens and business expectations, as well as organizational structures, cultures, and work progress. It is now a fact that more and more governments around the world are using information and communication technology especially on the Internet, to provide services between government agencies and business, citizens or employees. Jim Melitski described this phenomenon in APSA website in 2001 as an e-government journey that by publishing static information to the Internet and establishing online presence, in the hopes that will experiences increases in efficiency, effectiveness, and performance.  Government emerged as a concept and practice in the 1990s[3]. It first appeared in the 1993 US document National Performance Review by Al Gore under the Clinton administration. It was subsequently adopted by various governments around the globe. The white Paper on e-government, Modernising Government, published in March 1999, set out the vision that the government seek to achieve. A firm commitment was made in Chapter 5 ‘Information Age Government’ to push forward the e-agenda. This includes the appointment of E-Ministers and an E Envoy the development of a government strategy and strenuous attempts to create the mechanisms for joined up thinking and action on the use of technology and ICT in government. This paper also included the vision where the government want to get. The targets were set to 100% of services to be online by 2008 and by 50% by 2005. In April 2000, the document “E government- A strategic Framework for public services in the information Age, the government produced the strategy promised by the White Paper.  This paper fulfilled the promise in the White paper to deliver a strategy which would oversee the implementation of the policy across the public sector.[4]

Despite the popularity of the term, there is yet no clear definition of what does and what does not constitute E-government[5]. E-government was defined by the State of Texas as “Government activities that take place by digital processes over a computer network, usually the Internet, between the government and members of the public and entities in the private sector, especially regulated entities. These activities generally involve the electronic exchange of information to acquire or provide products or services, to place or receive orders, to provide or obtain information, or to complete financial transaction”.[6] A broader meaning of e-government is that it relates to whole range of activities and roles of the government, by making use of ICTs.  Such uses can be not only high-level decisions and general regulations, but also information and services available for individuals, groups, communities connected with public support, job opportunities, various advices, online payment and so on. In the broader meaning it does not only practices enhancing access to and delivery of services but also a more general aim to improve relations between governments’ institutions and citizens[7]. Electronic or digital technology is now a new powerful instrument of politics, decision making, public administration, and governance. On this point of view it can be evaluated for it applicability, appropriateness, effectiveness and efficiency not only in technical sense but also in political sense and on the other side citizens and facilitations of their life and activities can be the reference point. Ideally, e-government should mean less management and more stewardship of government and more citizens’ participation. Thus, e-government can be not only more efficient public services but also a part of democratic process. Applications of ICTs in politics, administration and management proved to be extremely useful and efficient at least in fields like: a) Identification, recognition, and documentation of needs of various social groups which are consumers of public services; b) Improvement of efficiency and also transparency and trust; b) information policy such us reports, official documents and citizens participation[8].

The process of implementing an e-government system passes through different stages until it reaches its highest potential stage[9].  For this reason some observers use a common schema for classifying the stages of evolution of e-government projects.[10] The schema is based on the degree to which properties of information technology have been utilized to enable delivery of services electronically. There are four stages of evolution; presence, interaction, transaction and transformation[11].  Presence is the first stage of development and it’s the establishment of a place for delivering information. This just represents the least expensive entrance into e-government but however offers the fewer options for citizens.  An example of such service is a website that merely offers information about an agency, such as hours, mail address or phone number but citizens cannot interact with that website. It just provides citizens with information. This is referred as brochureware, which is equivalent to a paper brochure. The second stage to consider is interaction. In this group website offers enhanced capabilities, but are still limited in their ability to streamline and automate government function. These types of websites are designed to help the customer avoid the office visit or make a phone call by proving information and forms at all times. These kinds of resources include instructions for obtaining services, downloading forms and also to be completed and mail back to an agency or ask questions by email and get respond via email also. The third stage is transactions, these are more complex that the simple information sites. They enable clients to compete entire tasks electronically 24/7. These services effectively create self-service operations for tasks such as licence renewals, paying taxes and fees, and submitting bids for procurement contracts. Even if this level of services is higher of the second stage, the activities still involve a flow of information that is primarily one-way. In this stage responses are more of a predictable outcome such as creating a receipt or approving a licence renewal[12]. The last stage is the highest order of evolution for e-government named transformation. In this stage initiatives utilize the full capabilities of the technology to transform the way government functions are organized or executed.  This phase relies on robust customer relationship management tools, wireless access devices and new methods of alternative service delivery capabilities that reshape relationships between citizens, businesses, employees and governments.[13] There are not too many examples of this stage because of administrative, technical, and fiscal constraints. One of the distinctions of these initiatives is that they facilitate the seamless flow of information and collaborative decision making between federal, state, local, public, and private partners.  In this stage initiates seek to remove organizational barriers that promote agency solutions and instead promote customer-centric solutions. Is the view of some that, in a most advanced level e-government it could potentially reorganize or eliminate existing agents and fully replace them with virtual organizations.[14]

The advantages that are provided by e-government are illustrated below. Firstly e-government can offer numerous possibilities for improving nation’s public sector responds to the basic needs of its citizens. By e-government means people get information or services delivered quickly and easily while maintaining their privacy and the security of their personal information. Secondly e-government improves the productivity and efficiency of government agencies. Today, the governmental agencies are wanted to deliver outcome and outputs, achieve better results for servicing people various needs. These will involve agencies working more effectively across their traditional boundaries and collaborating with another. E-government will satisfy this need by sharing information between departments (government to government), with businesses (government to businesses) and with citizens (government to citizens). As an effect will strengthen the integration of structures and process of government bureaucracy and make government agencies operate more efficiently. Thirdly e-governance strengthens the legal system and law enforcement. Taking in to account that governments are the largest purchasers in all economies, and for both moral and political reasons they should buy goods and services in the best way possible. Since if one pound more is paid then is one pound less to provide health care or social security. By fostering transparency, and empowering people to participate in the political processes, e-government will strengthen the legal system and law enforcement. Fourthly, e-government promotes the development of priority in economic sectors and regions[15]. Since government must observe market principles, behave in a premarket way, consequently government will minimize its intervention to business on the one hand; and promote the development of priority economic sectors and regions on the other hand, to promote the growth of the software industry and train qualified IT experts to take advantage of economic scale, and boosts remote and rural area’s development.  Another advantage to consider is the improvement of the quality of life for vulnerable people and disadvantaged communities. E-government is an aspect of the whole issue of governance, the whole issue of economic and social development concerning the question of poverty reduction, empower the poor and vulnerable people in society, it mean sharing the opportunity for development. Responsible e-government cannot ignore the fact that technology has the prospect of giving a huge advantage to some parts of the country, whereas leaving behind many other parts of the country with an even bigger gap to catch. Revolution in technology means sharing benefits without frontier in the soul. Finally e-government will transform the process and structures of government to create a public administration regime with less hierarchical red tapes, it will be citizen-centred, not bureaucracy-centred; results-oriented, it will work in further more effective and efficient ways. The market based behaviour of E-government will actively promote entrepreneurship and innovation process. Government agencies will empower civil servants to serve citizens better and to be more responsive to their needs[16].

On the other hand their several issues in respect of e-government to consider to also, these issues are some of the challenges that countries have when try to implement e-government. The first issue to consider is the important barrier to e-government to people that does not have access to the internet and thus will be unable to benefit from online services. Even if there is growing number of people that have access to internet, there still large numbers of people that do not. Also while e-government can also improve services to citizens, the inability to provide online services to all citizens can consider holding back e-government projects.  Additionally, the people with lower level of access tend to be those that are already disadvantaged. An example of this is that lower income groups have less access to the internet than higher income groups. These kinds of groups are often the targets of government interventions and have a higher level of ongoing interaction with government.

The second issue to consider here is that citizens are unlikely to use e-government services without a guarantee of privacy and security and government also have strong interest in maintaining citizens’ trust. The challenge here facing e-government coordinators and implementers is to respect accepted privacy principles while allowing the benefits of the internet and other technologies to flow to citizens.  Governments have a responsibility to provide leadership in developing a culture of privacy protection and security. One of the biggest issues implementing e-government is Trust. Since the electronic nature of interaction requires citizens to exchange personal information such as credit cards, the fear around the world is that their information could misuse breaching their privacy. Thus, the interaction requires citizens, as citizens expect a predictable, private and secure transaction[17].

The third issue to consider here is the difficulty with which government are developing services that are customer-focused.  As governments are developing more electronic services, they are also coming to the realization that they often do not know citizens needs.  ICT tools have provided governments with new ways to provide information and to consult with citizens, but determining the preferences of citizens and businesses with regard to the structure and content of e-services is another challenge for countries. Countries however are developing a common understanding, that services should be organized and provided according to citizens’ needs and preferences and not according to the logic of government administration.

The fourth issue to consider is the external barriers to e-government implementation, e-government contexts affects e-government initiatives across government and yet the dominant structural forms in all OECD governments are, stovepipe or silo organizational units that have relatively clear, mutually exclusive areas of responsibility and control and political accountability. External e-government barriers often concern missing components or flexibility in the government frameworks that enable e-government. The result can be the failure to achieve a whole government perspective in e-government implementation. This can be seen when e-government is treated as a merely technical issue rather than one that concerns the basic service delivery mandate of government, or when agencies ignore how additional value can created by better collaborating with other agencies provided related services. Barriers can also exist for agencies that only focus putting their one service online, without an eye on the broader government context that governs what the can and cannot do.

The fifth issue is the legal barrier, the implementation of e-government services and process will remain minimal without a legal equivalence between digital and paper processes. Example of this that the legal recognition of digital signature is necessary if they are to be used for the submission of electronic form that contains personal or financial information. Even if some countries have passed this legislation recognizing digital signature, however a small number have actually introduced applications beyond a pilot phase.  Additionally, complexity of regulations and requirements on agencies can consider another barrier if agencies are unable to determine what is required to invest in a project that may not conform with requirements.  Moreover e-government has the potential to improve collaboration across agencies and organizations, but there are a number of regulatory barriers. Such an example can be the accountability rules that are designed to ensure responsible use of public resources by identifying who does what.

Another issue to consider is the budget barrier; governments operate within vertical funding structures, in accordance with the public management principle of holding an agency accountable for achieving organizational objectives and giving the resources to accomplish those objectives.  Such frameworks however may not take into account specific needs of certain e-government projects, and specifically those long term funding requirements and collaboration across agencies. Therefore is clear that in order to maximize e-government benefits, financial issues must be solved. Moreover budgeting rules can also contain a number of rigidities that hold back e-government collaboration by preventing shared funding arrangements.[18]

The final issue to consider is the technical issues where barriers can arise from the inability of agencies to communicate with each other. In this respect government can help by proving a technological framework for the delivery of electronic services.  Harmonization is very important in all frameworks; the current e-government framework is in part due to past failures to harmonise systems and standards.  Governments round the globe continue to ICT investments and in any time soon it will have a wide range of ICT systems. However systems that are designed for a specific purpose can be inflexible and incompatible and therefore make it hard to deploy new applications that involve the need for data sharing and other interaction. Furthermore these systems may lead to high costs also. Thus, creating a common technical standards and infrastructure can pave the way for much greater efficiency[19].

 

E-government however goes beyond the technical advantages. The Working Group on e-government in the developing world has identified some broad categories of goals that are pursued by e-government that go beyond efficiency of government processes. Firstly, e-government creates a better business environment. Since technology is proven catalyst in increasing productivity and economic growth[20]. The use of ICT in government and the establishment of an e-government infrastructure help create a business friendly environment by streaming the interaction and improving the interface between government and business. By cutting out redundancies in procedures and emphasising immediate and efficient delivery of services, in this respect e-government creates conditions that can attract investors.  E-procurement is an example that can open new market to local businesses by opening up the government procurement process by making it more competitive and fair. An example of this is the Singapore government, in June 200 Prime minister Tony Tan launch a Singapore action plan. Singapore G2B portal (business.gov.sg) which is the first entry point for all local business to access to government agencies to access a full suite of aggregated and integrated G2B information and service provides easy online access to government agencies 24/7 and saves money and time for businesses. Using this portal to incorporate a new business requires a flat fee of $175 and just two hours, where before e-government it required $700-$20,400 depending on company size and over two day. As a result of this, government drive to promote a pro-enterprise environment and facilitate business growth in Singapore. Additionally, Singapore’s e-procurement portal GeBiz, is an integrated, end-to-end online procurement system for the public sector, mainly developed for efficiency and cost saving. But also to provide greater consistency and transparency in public procurement practices, The Singaporean Government sees GeBiz as stimulus to the development of e-commerce in the country.  In 2002 more that 3800 tenders where issued and 6500 quotations where published, and the total value of electronic transactions during that year was over $152 millions.  The number of public sectors uses exceeds 12,000 from 3,000 of the previous year. [21] Secondly by promoting transparency and accountability in government through ICT in management and operation also can open opportunities for citizens to be more actively involved in policy and decision making process of government. Additionally, as a tool in building a tradition of transparency and good governance e-government can advance the fight against corruption.  Also e-government facilitates the swift delivery of complete information. The broad dissemination of information provides power to citizens and facilitates informed decision-making. Moreover the transparency of information will not only provide further democracy but also instil a sense of accountability among government leaders and provide effective governance.  Thirdly to consider here is the improvement of productivity and efficiency of the government agencies, taking into account the re-engineering process and procedures to cut red tape, facilitate delivery of services increases productivity of the bureaucracy, and increase savings are benefits inherent in e-government. In more detail e-government can increase government staff productivity, but also reduce overhead form fewer offices and less paper management, but also improve capacity of planning management of government and actually increase revenue as businesses and citizens apply for more licences, due to the easiest process and less corrupt.  Also it induce cost savings in the medium to the long terms but also in shot terms, staffing and costs tend to increase as government must offer multiple platforms during the initial transition. Also most government processes have evolved over many years, and usually involve a lot of steps, tasks and activities. Streamlining government process through ICT disables redundant procedures and thus helps to reduce red tape.  One clear example of the social benefit from this is the Philippine National Bureau of Investigation (NBI), before e-government implementation NBI has been an object of mainly complaints because it took at least 3 days to secure and NBI clearance. This type of clearance is required for applying for employment, passports, visas and licensure examinations. This clearance is just to ensure that the specific citizen does not a criminal record or any pending criminal cases. The wait line for this clearance at any time is about 30,000. After e-governance, people can now renew their clearance in just five minutes from a kiosk located in the shopping malls. This had as a result a) a two fold increase in revenue. The agency used to earn about P150 million a year due to the slow process, but not the increase is almost double since it earns the agency P270 million a year; b) there is significant reduced graft and corruption. The kiosks that provided by NBI have significantly managed   to reduced grafted corruption by reducing the opportunities that citizens have to bribe employees in order for their applications to proved or to facilitate falsify document; c) this kiosks have managed to issue more than 30 000 clearances to jobseekers and visa applications on daily basis; and d) the new NBI computerization system has effectively decongested the Bureau of the long line clearance applications. From 30,000 people a day, the queue for the applicants has reduced to 4,000. A final point to consider is the improvement of the life quality for disadvantaged communities. The reason for this is that ICT makes it possible for government to reach marginalized groups and improve their quality of life by empowering them through their participation in the political process, as well as delivering needed public goods and services. [22]

 

As we have seen e-government offers an opportunity to create new channels of communication and new methods for participation. Support for e-government is allied with the decentralization theory, which offers optimistic prospects for the future of virtual governance[23]. However as we have seen privacy security and trust are the main issues for e-government implementation. In the EU study, Benchmarking security and Trust in the EU and US, individuals concerns about lack of trust and confidence in services provided electronically was found to be a big issue in implementation of e-government. The eEurope 2005 Action Plan stresses the importance of on-line security and trust for IS developments: “without good performance indicators (for security) … firms, security suppliers and consumers will be unable to make informed decisions about current or desired level of security and privacy”.[24] Moreover citizens with negative attitudes towards using electronic services would prefer to stay to the traditional methods, which for more is the paper-based.  In United States, Evans and Yen conducted a study entitled “E-government: An analysis for implementation: Framework for understanding cultural and social impacts”, in the study they found that religious beliefs will slow the implementation of e-government, the authors point out that “some countries and/or religions shun outside influences and will not want their countries and homes “contaminated” by outside influences.”[25] Another issue is that not all citizens have the required skill on Internet and computers. The lack of education of citizens, especially in information and computing technology is one of the biggest issues. In Arabic countries for example illiteracy is one of the big concerns and therefore it will be almost impossible for the citizens to learn how to use a computer without knowing for example to read. It quite obvious from here that some people will see e-government just as a new technical advance since the lack of security, privacy, trust, religious beliefs or lack of education on PC’s. However not all citizens view it this way as we have seen the advantages of these technology are enormous it can cut time since it is faster, everyone that has been to a government office just to renew his licence and waited two hours for a three minutes job will not that this is more like a social advance since it can improve quality of life. Corruption that is one of the biggest issues in many countries it is almost eliminate since there is almost no chance to bribe someone online.

 

 

In conclusion it can be said that the world is transforming rapidly as the new technologies get in all sphere of our life. With technology there are new opportunities for citizens to get in contact and communicate with government.  E-government can provide to the citizens participation in social and political life, providing access to public information and suggesting a forum for public discussions. Surely e-government can consider a social advance and provide citizens that have felt underrepresented in the past and provide better quality of life but only when it is used by the whole population and in order for this to be achieve it requires the government to take a lot of steps such as educated the citizens and make accessibility real simple and friendly for all kind of users.  However on the other hand there many citizens that will never view it as a social advance but merely as a technical advance that will never use because either they afraid of security or privacy or as the studies shows people will not get involve because they do not trust the government. But also because e-government was not made for all citizens but merely for those who use technology and that percentage is not that big, since still there people who do not even know how to start a computer.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography:

 

  • Al-Hashmi, A. Darem “Understanding Phases of E-government Project” available at http://www.csi-sigegov.org/emerging_pdf/17_152-157.pdf
  • Baum, A. D. Maio, “Gartner’s Four Phases of E-Government Model, 21 November 2000
  • C. Haldenwang “Electronic Government (E-Government) and Development: Does the Digital Divide Contribute to the Governance Divide?” available at  http://www.eadi-online.org/fileadmin/WG_Documents/Reg_WG/haldenwang.pdf
  • Citizen empowerment and inclusion United Nations E-government Survey (2010) available at http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un-dpadm/unpan038849.pdf
  • D. Dada “ The Failure of E-Government in developing countries” (2006) available at http://www.ejisdc.org/ojs2/index.php/ejisdc/article/viewFile/277/176
  • E-Commerce and development report (2004) available at http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/ecdr2004ch5_en.pdf
  • E-government benefits study April 2003 available at http://www.agimo.gov.au/archive/__data/assets/file/0012/16032/benefits.pdf
  • Garson “Modern public information technology systems: issues and challenges” Idea Group (2007)
  • H. J. Song “E-government in developing countries: Lessons Learned from republic of Korea” available at http://www2.unescobkk.org/elib/publications/083/e-government.pdf
  • Heichlinger “e-Government in Europe’s Regions: Approaches and Progress in IST Strategy. Organization and Services, and the Role of Regional Actors. Maastricht (Netherlands) European Institute of Public Administration” (2004)
  • I. Netchaeva “E-government and e-democracy: A comparison of opportunities in the North and South” available at http://java.cs.vt.edu/public/projects/digitalgov/papers/Netchaeva.EGov.Edemo.pdf
  • J. Bennet “An e government future for us all?” (2001)
  • J. Fountain “Information, Institutions and Governance: Advancing a Basic Social Science Research Program for Digital Government” January 2003 available at http://www.hks.harvard.edu/var/ezp_site/storage/fckeditor/file/pdfs/centers-programs/centers/taubman/working_papers/03_003FountainInfoInstGov_pdf.pdf
  • J. Seifert “A Primer on E-Government: Sectors, Stages, Opportunities, and Challenges of Online Governance” January 2003 available at http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/RL31057.pdf
  • L. Zacher “E-government in the information society” available at http://www.igi-global.com/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=11557
  • Lau “Challenges for e-government development” (2003) available at http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un/unpan012241.pdf
  • M. Alomari, K. Sandhu, P. Woods “Measuring Social Factors in E-government Adoption in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan” (2010) available at  http://infonomics-society.org/IJDS/Measuring%20Social%20Factors%20in%20E-government%20Adoption%20in%20the%20Hashemite%20Kingdom%20of%20Jordan.pdf
  • M. Holzer, M. Zhang, K Dong Proceedings of the Second Sino-U.S. International Conference:“Public Administration in the Changing World” May 2004 available at http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/ASPA/UNPAN022840.pdf
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  • P. Pascual “E-Goverment” May 2003 available at http://www.apdip.net/publications/iespprimers/eprimer-egov.pdf
  • R. Heeks “Success and failure rates of e-government in developing/transition countries overview”(2003) available at http://www.egov4dev.org/success/sfrates.shtml
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  • State of Texas E-government Task Force (2003) available at www.dir.state.tx.us/taskforce/Surveys/State_Survey/app_b.htm
  • Z. Ebrahim, Z. Irani “E-government adoption: architecture and barriers” (2006) available at http://www.electionready.com/pdfs/e-Government-Adoption.pdf
  • Z. Irani, M. Alsebie, T. Elliman “Transaction Stage of e-Government Systems: Identification of its Location & Importance” http://bura.brunel.ac.uk/bitstream/2438/4486/1/250740082c.pdf
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[1] S. Bhatnagar “E-government: from vision to implementation” SAGE (2004)p17

[2] R. Heeks “Success and failure rates of e-government in developing/transition countries overview”(2003) available at http://www.egov4dev.org/success/sfrates.shtml

[3]M. Holzer, M. Zhang, K Dong Proceedings of the Second Sino-U.S. International Conference:“Public Administration in the Changing World” May 2004 available at http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/ASPA/UNPAN022840.pdf

[4] J. Bennet “An e government future for us all?” (2001)

[5] P. Nixon, V. Koutrakou, R. Rawal “Understanding E-government in Europe: Issues and Challenges” Taylor & Francis (2009) p.96

[6] State of Texas E-government Task Force (2003)

(www.dir.state.tx.us/taskforce/Surveys/State_Survey/app_b.htm). The London Borough of

Kensington and Chelsea uses a similar definition: ‘Electronic government is about using new

technology (like computers and the Internet) to improve the way central and local government

deliver their services, communicate, consult and work with others’

(www.rbkc.gov.uk/Consultation/General/glossary.asp).

[7] A. Heichlinger “eGovernment in Europe’s Regions: Approaches and Progress in IST Strategy. Organisation and Services, and the Role of Regional Actors. Maastricht (Netherlands) European Institute of Public Administration” (2004)

[8] L. Zacher “E-goverment in the information society” available at http://www.igi-global.com/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=11557

[9]Z. Irani, M. Alsebie, T. Elliman “Transaction Stage of e-Government Systems:Identification of its Location & Importance” http://bura.brunel.ac.uk/bitstream/2438/4486/1/250740082c.pdf

[10] “Christopher Baum and Andrea Di Maio, Gartner’s Four Phases of E-Government Model” November 2000

[11]J. Seifert “A Primer on E-Government: Sectors, Stages, Opportunities,and Challenges of Online Governance” January 2003 available at http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/RL31057.pdf

[12] Ibid

[13]A. Al-Hashmi, A. Darem “Understanding Phases of E-government Project” available at http://www.csi-sigegov.org/emerging_pdf/17_152-157.pdf

[14] C. Baum, A. D. Maio, “Gartner’s Four Phases of E-Government Model, 21 November 2000

[15] H. J. Song “E-government in developing countries: Lessons Learned from republic of Korea” available at http://www2.unescobkk.org/elib/publications/083/e-government.pdf

[16] M. Wimmer“Knowledge management in electronic government” (2004) p319

[17]M. Alomari, K. Sandhu, P. Woods “Measuring Social Factors in E-government Adoption in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan” (2010) available at  http://infonomics-society.org/IJDS/Measuring%20Social%20Factors%20in%20E-government%20Adoption%20in%20the%20Hashemite%20Kingdom%20of%20Jordan.pdf

[18] E. Lau “Challenges for e-government development” (2003) available at http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un/unpan012241.pdf

[19] Ibid

[20] R. Konrad, “Battling Bush’s Digital Divide,” C/NET News.com [home page online]; 11 February 2002; available at http://news.com.com/2100-1023-834645.html

[21] E-Commerce and development report (2004) available at http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/ecdr2004ch5_en.pdf

[22] P. Pascual “E-Goverment” May 2003 available at http://www.apdip.net/publications/iespprimers/eprimer-egov.pdf

[23] D. Garson “Modern public information technology systems: issues and challenges” Idea Group (2007) p118

[24] R. Tassbehji “Generating citizen trust in e-government using a trust verification agent” (2006)

[25]D. Evans, David C. Yen “E-government: An analysis for implementation: Framework for understanding cultural and social impact” (2005) p368

 

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